Improved health of babies
The 1981 Census shows that 11 babies in every 1,000 die before the age of one. In 1900 this figure was 160. Childhood survival has been revolutionised by vaccination programmes, better sanitation and improved standards of living, resulting in better health of both mother and child. Increased numbers of births in hospital has meant that where unexpected problems do occur, medical help is on hand. Around one baby in eight requires some kind of special care following birth. Twenty years ago, only 20% of babies weighing less than 1,000g (2lbs 2oz) at birth survived. Now that figure is closer to 80%.